Mother holding her albino baby in her arm in Tanzania. Mother holding her albino baby in her arm in Tanzania.
Mother holding her albino baby in her arm in Tanzania. Traditionally, albinism has been classified according to clinical phenotype, and the 2 main categories... Mother holding her albino baby in her arm in Tanzania.

Mother holding her albino baby in her arm in Tanzania. Traditionally, albinism has been classified according to clinical phenotype, and the 2 main categories are oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and ocular albinism (OA).

The albinism subtypes were reclassified in 2009. With the availability of new molecular genetic studies, the classification of albinism has shifted emphasis to genotype as opposed tophenotype alone. Hence, this has led to redefining existing phenotypic categories and the addition of new subtypes based on specific genetic mutations. The following is a brief overview of the current classification of albinism.
OCA is characterized by the reduction or absence of melanin in the skin, hair, and optic system (including the eyes and optic nerves). The lack of skin pigment results in a pale skin appearance and an increased risk of skin cancer. As shown in Table 1, OCA is divided further into several subtypes based on the distinct genetic mutation.

ALBINISM IN AFRICA AS PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE
Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition and OCA2, tyrosine-positive albinism, is the most prevalent type found throughout Africa. Due to the lack of melanin, people with albinism are more susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure. This population must deal with issues such as photophobia, decreased visual acuity, extreme sun sensitivity and skin cancer. People with albinism also face social discrimination as a result of their difference in appearance. The World Health Organization is currently investigating the issues concerning this vulnerable population.
Systematic electronic search of articles in PubMed concerning albinism in Africa. Furthermore, a World Health Organization (WHO) pilot survey of albinism was drafted in English, French and Portuguese, and distributed to African countries through WHO African Regional Offices (AFRO) in an attempt to gather further information on albinism.


read-about-this-two-powerful-asante-queen-mothers
Results
Epidemiologic data on albinism, such as prevalence, were available for South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Nigeria. Prevalences as high as 1 in 1,000 were reported for selected populations in Zimbabwe and other specific ethnic groups in Southern Africa. An overall estimate of albinism prevalences ranges from 1/5,000 – 1/15,000. In addition, both the literature review and the survey underscored the medical and social issues facing people with albinism.

Conclusion
The estimated prevalence of albinism suggests the existence of tens of thousands of people living with albinism in Africa. This finding reiterates the need for increased awareness of and public health interventions for albinism in order to better address the medical, psychological and social needs of this vulnerable population.
albino
Background
Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions with an autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes due to a reduced or lack of cutaneous melanin pigment production [1]. Consequently, in Africa, the affected individuals have sandy coloured hair, white chalky skin and light brown or blue eyes, making them more susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
There are two types of OCA: tyrosinase negative (OCA1) and tyrosinase positive (OCA2). In OCA1, there is little or no melanin production due to the lack of a functional tyrosinase, the critical enzyme required in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. In the more prevalent OCA2 type [1] there is some level of tyrosinase activity, thereby producing some red-yellow photomelanin pigment that gives rise to sandy coloured hair and light brown irises [1].
There is growing evidence of social discrimination and stigmatization directed towards this population [4,5]. Along with their differences in appearance, a lack of knowledge about albinism in the community leads to such stigma. For example, the etiological beliefs about albinism continue to be heavily influenced by culture and superstition, rather than genetics [6]. The goal of this review is to discuss the current knowledge on public health aspects of albinism in Africa, focusing on the epidemiology as well as medical and social issues. We also recommend further actions to alleviate this situation for the affected populations and countries. As a basis for the review we conducted a systematic literature search on albinism in Africa and conducted a survey among African WHO Member States.

Henry Okafor

  • Tyesha Campbell

    2016-10-27 #1 Author

    This story shows that even if you don’t look the same as your mother or father that doesn’t make you any less of their child. Albino’s are discriminated a lot because of their race and appearance but they Are beautiful inside and out.

    Reply

    • Jenny

      2016-10-27 #2 Author

      No matter what skin color ur baby come out or how different ur bby may look from u. It dont change the fact that its still ur bby… I love this story

      Reply

    • Sharnice Harris

      2016-10-28 #3 Author

      He’s so adorable

      Reply

    • Aleena Hailey

      2016-10-28 #4 Author

      My cousin is albino. I never thought of him as strange, I always wanted light colored hair like his!

      Reply

  • Tiffanyschoch

    2016-10-27 #5 Author

    This Ian beautiful ❤️

    Reply

  • Raven Hill

    2016-10-27 #6 Author

    Beautiful baby

    Reply

  • Wayneka

    2016-10-27 #8 Author

    Beautiful

    Reply

  • Jamilex Bello

    2016-10-27 #9 Author

    Sooo beautiful god bless ?

    Reply

  • ukaego treasure

    2016-10-27 #10 Author

    Beautiful baby

    Reply

  • Emily

    2016-10-27 #11 Author

    Such a beautiful baby, doesn’t even look like an albino

    Reply

  • krista

    2016-10-27 #12 Author

    Love it

    Reply

  • shay rae

    2016-10-27 #13 Author

    What a beautiful baby and family

    Reply

  • Quinnisha Simmons

    2016-10-27 #14 Author

    This Is So Beautiful ??

    Reply

  • TamiaWilder

    2016-10-27 #15 Author

    This is a beautiful baby?❣️ #Tanzania

    Reply

  • Ashanti

    2016-10-27 #16 Author

    Amazing ❤️

    Reply

  • Maggie Williams

    2016-10-27 #17 Author

    That’s is amazing What a beautiful child she has ???

    Reply

  • Holledwine

    2016-10-27 #18 Author

    This baby is beautiful just the way she is and no matter all color is a baby all kids are beautiful and love by their mother unconditionally

    Reply

    • Shamiya

      2016-10-27 #19 Author

      ❤️❤️❤️❤️

      Reply

  • Yazid Ali Hassan

    2016-10-27 #20 Author

    Your baby is your second love no matter what.

    Reply

  • Michelle Johnson

    2016-10-27 #21 Author

    I use to think it wasn’t true…i thought they were just mix kids but I just learned something new…she’s pretty ??

    Reply

  • Christopher Lawrence

    2016-10-27 #22 Author

    Beautiful ?

    Reply

  • OG Mvc Shun

    2016-10-27 #23 Author

    Beautiful Picture ??

    Reply

  • Victoria Wood

    2016-10-27 #24 Author

    I Love This Photo It Really Shows The True Meaning Of Life Love And Children All In One.

    Reply

  • Alexandrea rivera

    2016-10-27 #25 Author

    Such an amazing thing! ❤️

    Reply

  • Cierra Rivera

    2016-10-27 #27 Author

    She’s beautiful ?

    Reply

  • Shanteria

    2016-10-27 #28 Author

    Awwwww ??? his skin color ❤️❤️❤️

    Reply

  • Danielle

    2016-10-27 #29 Author

    Beautiful baby

    Reply

  • Haydee

    2016-10-28 #30 Author

    Beautiful lovely story

    Reply

  • Shaquitta Ivery

    2016-10-28 #31 Author

    I love it. The different shades of the African American culture.

    Reply

  • Camille Thomas

    2016-10-28 #32 Author

    So beautiful it doesnt matter to a mother what kind of race a child is a mother will always love a child

    Reply

  • Shalisse

    2016-10-28 #33 Author

    Beautiful!

    Reply

  • Na Boogie

    2016-10-28 #34 Author

    I think this is amazing and an unique blessing ?

    Reply

  • Daja Watkins

    2016-10-28 #35 Author

    Beautiful Baby ?

    Reply

  • Alicia

    2016-10-28 #36 Author

    That is a touching story! Just beautiful

    Reply

  • Steasha Ladasha, keorrah Graham

    2016-10-28 #37 Author

    This is so beautiful.

    Reply

  • Kayla l

    2016-10-28 #38 Author

    This is the sweetest thing & the baby and mother is beautiful

    Reply

    • Kelsey

      2016-10-28 #39 Author

      So precious & beautiful. Babies are a blessing from God. ?

      Reply

  • Kenya McGrew

    2016-10-28 #40 Author

    Awe ,. That is soool beautiful ????

    Reply

  • amanda gonzalez

    2016-10-28 #41 Author

    Love it!

    Reply

  • Trinequa

    2016-10-28 #43 Author

    Gorgeous ??

    Reply

  • Radley

    2016-10-28 #44 Author

    A mother’s love have no limits no color. It’s pu’re than anything else in this world. It’s the best thing.

    Reply

  • Tamara Beasley

    2016-10-28 #46 Author

    This is so wonderful & still such a blessing . Cute baby & awesome mom ??

    Reply

  • Shauntaevia Keyes

    2016-10-28 #47 Author

    This story shows that even if you don’t look the same as your mother or father that doesn’t make you any less of their child. Albino’s are discriminated a lot because of their race and appearance but they Are beautiful inside and out.

    Reply

  • Vernesha Brown

    2016-10-28 #48 Author

    Love this !!! Great read & beautiful baby

    Reply

  • Annesha Collins

    2016-10-28 #49 Author

    This story and baby is absolutely beautiful ❤️❤️ A mothers love is strong and her baby having a different skin color will never change that…this makes me appreciate being a mom even more. ??

    Reply

  • CalB22

    2016-10-28 #50 Author

    This is so great & adorable

    Reply

  • Thabile Nkosi

    2016-10-28 #51 Author

    Beautiful baby

    Reply

  • Jamesha Robinson

    2016-10-28 #52 Author

    . He Is Gergous ❤

    Reply

  • Miranda Ringgold

    2016-10-28 #53 Author

    That’s what’s it’s all about !! .Love it ??

    Reply

  • La Dree

    2016-10-28 #54 Author

    Beautiful Baby ?

    Reply

  • Cortny

    2016-10-28 #55 Author

    They are a beautiful blessing to be together! ❤️

    Reply

  • Joselin Diaz

    2016-10-28 #56 Author

    Wow how beatuiful very blessed

    Reply

  • Kyle handy

    2016-10-28 #57 Author

    Babies are a blessing and to beautiful

    Reply

  • Brooklyn Breanna

    2016-10-28 #58 Author

    beautiful baby ??

    Reply

  • Brayshon

    2016-10-28 #59 Author

    Omg how sweet ??

    Reply

  • Nita

    2016-10-28 #60 Author

    Beautiful baby I love this story!!!

    Reply

  • Tiffany

    2016-10-28 #61 Author

    Cute?

    Reply

  • Dana

    2016-10-28 #62 Author

    Omg ? How adorable

    Reply

  • LaTwaina

    2016-10-28 #63 Author

    This is beautiful

    Reply

  • Cianna

    2016-10-28 #64 Author

    Love it??

    Reply

  • Cidney

    2016-10-28 #65 Author

    Just BEAUTIFUL

    Reply

  • Shanequa Simmons

    2016-10-28 #66 Author

    Beautiful story and beautiful baby!

    Reply

  • Sydonnie Stephenson

    2016-10-28 #67 Author

    Absolutely adorable ?

    Reply

  • Jada

    2016-10-28 #68 Author

    Beautiful baby would’ve loved for 1 of mine to have been albino! ??????

    Reply

  • Destiny Echols

    2016-10-28 #69 Author

    Youre baby is adorable

    Reply

  • Lakeisha Higgins

    2016-10-28 #70 Author

    Enjoyed reading this article and others as well…Beautiful baby….

    Reply

  • Traci

    2016-10-28 #71 Author

    Beautiful???

    Reply

  • Shonda Nelson

    2016-10-28 #72 Author

    beautiful ❤️?

    Reply

  • Taylor

    2016-10-28 #73 Author

    Precious Baby So Beautiful Omg , I Wish I could Bring You home With Me

    Reply

  • DeRika Blue

    2016-10-28 #74 Author

    This Is So Sweet ??

    Reply

  • Rebecca

    2016-10-29 #75 Author

    So beautiful

    Reply

  • Jasmine

    2016-10-29 #76 Author

    Wow that’s amazing ?

    Reply

  • Nayrobi

    2016-10-29 #77 Author

    Beutiful baby no matter his skin color it still your baby ??

    Reply

  • Steasha Ladasha, keorrah Graham

    2016-10-29 #78 Author

    This is so amazing it touches my hart.

    Reply

  • Lavontae White

    2016-10-29 #79 Author

    Such A Beautiful Baby ???

    Reply

  • Cici

    2016-10-29 #80 Author

    He is beautiful

    Reply

  • Shlante Nichols

    2016-10-29 #81 Author

    So Sweet ?

    Reply

  • Aliah

    2016-10-29 #82 Author

    The eve gene is amazing!

    Reply

  • Sahtara

    2016-10-29 #83 Author

    Such A Beautiful Baby ?

    Reply

  • Imani Bell

    2016-10-29 #84 Author

    Beautiful baby it doesn’t matter what color he is, he’s God’s child!

    Reply

  • Imani Bell

    2016-10-29 #85 Author

    Imani BellOctober 29, 2016#83
    Beautiful baby it doesn’t matter what color, the baby is God’s child!

    Reply

  • shabrell linder

    2016-10-29 #86 Author

    Ive always wanted a albino baby.. I think that they are very beautiful

    Reply

  • Cari turner

    2016-10-29 #87 Author

    I have 3 albino aunts?? she’s beautiful

    Reply

  • Cassandra

    2016-10-29 #88 Author

    How sweet ♡♡♡♡

    Reply

  • Cassandra

    2016-10-29 #89 Author

    So sweet ♡

    Reply

  • Kayla

    2016-10-29 #90 Author

    This is beautuful
    Im tearing up

    Reply

  • Seraerica

    2016-10-29 #91 Author

    So beautiful? this is sweet !

    Reply

  • Whitney chambers

    2016-10-29 #92 Author

    Beautiful story and such a beautiful baby

    Reply

  • Happiness

    2016-10-30 #93 Author

    Adolable child…the colour of our skin doesn’t make us less human..

    Reply

  • Samantha Lanice Avery

    2016-10-30 #94 Author

    So beautiful???

    Reply

  • Ariana Quintero

    2016-11-01 #95 Author

    Such a beautiful baby!

    Reply

  • Bre

    2016-11-22 #96 Author

    Awwwl so sweet n innocent

    Reply

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